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In order to reduce the number of words one would have to learn in order to speak the language, much of Esperanto’s vocabulary is composed of a comparatively small stock of root words that can be combined with an even smaller group of familiar affixes to create new words as needed.

Note that what constitutes an affix in Esperanto is largely a matter of dictionary tradition at this point, as most non-technical affixes are also roots (e.g. mal- “un-”, malo, “opposite”).

Official Prefixes

Official Suffixes

Unofficial Suffixes